Factors Associated With Same Day Discharge Post-Spinal Cord Stimulator Placement


Far West


Riverside Community Hospital

Document Type


Publication Date



Male, Humans, Cohort Studies, Retrospective Studies, Patient Discharge, Spinal Cord Stimulation, Spinal Cord, Chronic Pain, Treatment Outcome


Anesthesiology | Medicine and Health Sciences | Surgical Procedures, Operative


BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulator (SCS) surgeries, whether performed using the open or percutaneous approach, are becoming increasingly common for a range of neuropathic pain conditions, including post-laminectomy syndrome and complex regional pain syndrome. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the factors linked to same-day discharge patterns following SCS.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with same-day discharge after SCS placement. The primary outcome was same-day discharge.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, cohort study using a nationwide database.

METHODS: Inclusion criteria included patients who underwent percutaneous or open SCS from January 1, 2014 through December 31, 2021. Exclusion criteria included patients with missing data (n = 178) and those with SCS implants for unlisted indications (n = 1,817). A multivariable analysis was conducted on the outcome data and co-variates associated with same-day discharge after SCS.

RESULTS: After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 18,058 patients remained in the final data set, including 7,339 patients who underwent percutaneous SCS and 10,719 patients who underwent open SCS procedures. After analysis, factors associated with increased rates of same-day discharge after SCS included men (odds ratio [OR] 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09 -1.24; P < 0.001), patients on Medicaid (OR 1.64; 95% CI, 0.1.34 - 2.01; P < 0.001), and hospitals in the US Midwest (OR 1.66; 95% CI, 1.45 - 1.90; P < 0.001) and hospitals in the US West (OR 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20 - 1.46; P < 0.001). Factors associated with decreased rates of same-day discharge after SCS included the open approach (OR 0.21; 95% CI, 0.19 - 0.23; P < 0.001), Hispanic ethnicity (OR 0.61; 95% CI, 0.54 - 0.69; P < 0.001) and increased age (OR 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98 - 0.99; P < 0.001).

LIMITATIONS: Since our study is retrospective, the data are subject to various biases, including variable confounding, human error in data entry, and generalizability of the results.

CONCLUSION: These results can be used to help determine hospital bed needs post-SCS surgery. Future research should focus on identifying the specific reasons certain demographic and geographic factors might influence same-day discharge rates. Our study provides important insights into the factors associated with same-day discharge rates post open and percutaneous SCS implant and highlights the need for patient-centered, evidence-based approaches to health care delivery.

Publisher or Conference

Pain Physician