Nationwide Trends in Prevalent Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Diseases in Young Adults: Differences by Sex and Race and In-Hospital Outcomes.




Eastern Idaho Regional Medical Center

Document Type


Publication Date



Adolescent, Adult, African Americans, Arrhythmias, Cardiac, Asian Americans, Databases, Factual, Diabetes Mellitus, Dyslipidemias, Ethnic Groups, European Continental Ancestry Group, Female, Hispanic Americans, Hospital Mortality, Hospitalization, Humans, Hypertension, Indians, North American, Male, Myocardial Infarction, Obesity, Oceanic Ancestry Group, Peripheral Vascular Diseases, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Sex Factors, Smoking, Stroke, United States, Venous Thromboembolism, Young Adult


Cardiology | Cardiovascular Diseases | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Endocrine System Diseases


OBJECTIVES: Prevalence and trends in all cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young adults (18-39 years) have not been evaluated on a large scale stratified by sex and race. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence and temporal trend of CVD risk factors in US inpatients younger than 40 years of age from 2007 through 2014 with racial and sex-based distinctions. In addition, the impact of these risk factors on inpatient outcomes and healthcare resource utilization was explored.

METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide analysis of all hospitalizations, comorbidities, and complications among young adults from 2007 to 2014 was performed. The primary outcomes were frequency, trends, and race- and sex-based differences in coexisting CVD risk factors. Coprimary outcomes were trends in all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, stroke, and venous thromboembolism in young adults with CVD risk factors. Secondary outcomes were demographics and resource utilization in young adults with versus without CVD risk factors.

RESULTS: Of 63 million hospitalizations (mean 30.5 [standard deviation 5.9] years), 27% had at least one coexisting CVD risk factor. From 2007 to 2014, admission frequency with CVD risk factors increased from 42.8% to 55.1% in males and from 16.2% to 24.6% in females. Admissions with CVD risk were higher in male (41.4% vs 15.9%) and white (58.4% vs 53.8%) or African American (22.6% vs 15.9%) patients compared with those without CVD risk. Young adults in the Midwest (23.9% vs 21.1%) and South (40.8% vs 37.9%) documented comparatively higher hospitalizations rates with CVD risk. Young adults with CVD risk had higher all-cause in-hospital mortality (0.4% vs. 0.3%) with a higher average length of stay (4.3 vs 3.2 days) and charges per admission ($30,074 vs $20,124).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite modern advances in screening, management, and interventional measures for CVD, rising trends in CVD risk factors across all sex and race/ethnic groups call for attention by preventive cardiologists.

Publisher or Conference

Southern Medical Journal