Title

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of Literature

Division

Capital

Hospital

LewisGale Medical Center

Document Type

Review Article

Publication Date

4-20-2021

Keywords

pulmonary hypertenion, obstructive sleep apnoea, obstructive sleep apnea

Disciplines

Cardiology | Internal Medicine | Nervous System Diseases | Pulmonology | Respiratory Tract Diseases

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disease process involving recurrent pharyngeal collapse during sleep, resulting in apneic episodes. Clinically, symptoms can include snoring, sudden awakening with a choking-like sensation, excessive somnolence, non-restorative sleep, difficulty in starting or maintaining sleep, and fatigue. It results in impaired gas exchange, subsequently causing various cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive pathologies. Historically, OSA has been underdiagnosed and undertreated, especially in women.

OSA is associated with WHO (World Health Organization) class III pulmonary hypertension (PH) or PH due to lung disease. PH is a concerning complication of OSA and thought to occur in roughly 20% of individuals with OSA. The pathogenesis of PH in OSA can include pulmonary artery vasoconstriction and remodeling. Patients suffering from OSA who develop PH tend to have worse cardiovascular and pulmonary changes. We present a thorough review of the literature examining the interplay between OSA and PH.

Publisher or Conference

Cureus

COinS