Acute Unilateral Oculomotor Nerve Palsy as the Initial Presenting Sign of Nonfunctioning Apoplectic Gonadotroph Adenoma
LewisGale Medical Center
pituitary macroadenoma, nonfunctioning adenoma, mass effect, oculomotor nerve palsy, left eye ptosis, transsphenoidal resection, stereotactic radiotherapy
Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Internal Medicine | Neoplasms | Nervous System Diseases | Neurology
Pituitary macroadenoma usually presents with visual field defects. Oculomotor nerve palsy is a rare presentation, and usually a sign of para-sellar growth and cavernous sinus extension. The oculomotor nerve is more susceptible to laterally transmitted pressure by pituitary mass expansion because of its anatomical location. A slow onset oculomotor nerve palsy results from either gradual compression of the nerve in the sinus wall or direct infiltration of the nerve by the pituitary tumor. We are reporting a unique case of a 68-year-old African American patient who presented to an ophthalmology clinic with left eye complete ptosis, blurry vision, and a progressive headache for a few weeks. He was found to have a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) that required urgent transnasal transsphenoidal tumor resection. The patient's ocular movements significantly improved a few days postoperatively, and repeated computed tomography (CT) of the head showed complete resection of the pituitary adenoma. The postoperative morning cortisol level was significantly low, confirming the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency. The patient was treated with corticosteroid replacement therapy.
Publisher or Conference
Gaballa S, Lindsay J, Aljaf A, et al. (June 25, 2020) Acute Unilateral Oculomotor Nerve Palsy as the Initial Presenting Sign of Nonfunctioning Apoplectic Gonadotroph Adenoma. Cureus 12(6): e8819. doi:10.7759/cureus.8819