A Retrospective Review of Outcomes in Intensive Care Unit Patients Infected With SARS-Cov2 in Correlation to Admission Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II Scores.
Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global pandemic that has placed an unprecedented burden on intensive care services worldwide. Identification of a reliable risk-stratification tool for COVID-19 patients is necessary for appropriate resource allocation, selection of clinical management pathways, and guidance of goals of care conversations with families and caregivers in the critical care setting. The Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system is one of several predictive models used to classify illness severity and estimate mortality risk on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Our retrospective study sought to evaluate the prognostic ability of the APACHE II score in COVID-19 patients according to endpoints of mortality and length of stay (LOS) as well as unfavorable clinical outcomes, including development of acute renal failure (ARF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) and acute venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Methods This multicenter retrospective cohort study evaluated a randomized sample of 3,102 patients with confirmed COVID-19 disease admitted to the ICU from January 2020 to May 2020. A total of 395 patients with complete data points for appropriate APACHE II score calculation, absence of the preexisting comorbidities end-stage renal disease, and history of VTE were included. Linear and logistic regression models were employed to evaluate primary outcomes of mortality and LOS as well as secondary outcomes of VTE and ARF requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) or hemodialysis (HD). Key results Among the 395 patients enrolled, total percent mortality and mean LOS were 37.0% and 12.92 days, respectively. Primary outcome analysis revealed a statistically significant increase in odds of mortality as well as in mean LOS with every additional point increase in APACHE II score from a baseline of zero. Specifically, for every point increase in the APACHE II score, odds of mortality increased by 12% (p value < 0.001), and average LOS increased by 0.2 days (p value < 0.001). In our secondary outcome analysis, 14.43% and 62.2% of the total sample population developed ARF requiring RRT and VTE, respectively. For every additional point increase in APACHE II score from a baseline of zero, odds of requiring CRRT or HD increased by 10% on average (95% CI (1.06, 1.15); p value < 0.001). Similarly, for every additional point increase in the APACHE II score from a baseline of zero, there was a corresponding increase in odds of VTE by 19% (95% CI (1.14, 1.24); p value < 0.001). Conclusions The APACHE II score is an effective predictive model of in-hospital mortality and unfavorable clinical outcomes, including prolonged LOS, ARF requiring CRRT or HD, and development of VTE. As therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 evolve, application of this risk-stratification tool may guide clinical management decisions in the critical care setting.