A Silent Killer: Left Main Coronary Artery Disease in Gastrointestinal Bleed


North Florida


Osceola Regional Medical Center

Document Type

Case Report

Publication Date



left main coronary artery disease (lmcad), electrocardiogram (ecg), augmented lead avr, st segment elevation, acute gastrointestinal bleed, type 2 myocardial infarction


Cardiovascular Diseases | Internal Medicine


Left main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) is defined as more than 50% angiographic arterial narrowing and has been demonstrated in nearly 5% of all patients undergoing coronary angiography. It carries an extremely high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as it impacts more than two-thirds of the left ventricle. Prediction of LMCAD in the right clinical setting is important for the selection of the proper treatment strategies. Typical ECG characteristics are ST elevation (STE) in lead augmented vector right (aVR-STE) of more than 0.5 mV accompanied by ST depression (STD) notably in leads I, II, and V4-6 or STE in aVR ≥ V1. Furthermore, the presence of aVR-STE is associated with worse outcomes and careful evaluation and close monitoring are warranted. However, not every aVR-STE is an acute occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), as acute occlusion is a catastrophic event. aVR-STE can also be associated with severe triple-vessel disease or diffuse subendocardial ischemia.

Publisher or Conference