COVID-19 and the Cardiovascular System: An Update


North Florida


North Florida Regional Medical Center

Document Type

Review Article

Publication Date



COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, cardiovascular complications, coronavirus, inotropes, myocarditis, shock, vaccine, vasopressor


Cardiology | Cardiovascular Diseases | Internal Medicine | Respiratory Tract Diseases | Virus Diseases


As COVID-19 continues to cause an increasing number of deaths worldwide, it is important that providers stay abreast with new research related to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease presentation states and clinical management. It is now well recognized that COVID-19 affects extrapulmonary organs, particularly the cardiovascular system. For example, cardiogenic shock has been increasingly observed in patients with COVID-19, owing to the various mechanisms involved and the affinity of the SARS-CoV-2 virus to cells comprising the cardiovascular system. In this review, we have briefly discussed the link between the cardiovascular system and COVID-19 infection, focusing on underlying mechanisms including but not limited to cytokine storm, direct virus-induced myocarditis, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction leading to cardiogenic shock. We have highlighted the cardiovascular risk factors associated with disease prognostication in COVID-19 patients. We have also briefly discussed vasopressors and inotropes used for treating shock and presented their mechanism of action, contraindications, and side effects in the hopes of providing a quick reference to help the provider optimize management of COVID-19 patients presenting with cardiovascular complications such as shock.

Publisher or Conference

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences