Air Leak in COVID-19 Patients
Kendall Regional Medical Center
sars-cov-2, coronavirus infections, COVID-19, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema, air leak
Infectious Disease | Internal Medicine | Respiratory Tract Diseases | Virus Diseases
COVID-19 has been associated with multiple complications including Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), thrombo-embolism, and septic shock. A rare complication is a Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM), pneumothorax (PNX), and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE) unrelated to positive pressure ventilation. These complications can become life threatening if a large amount of air is present and cannot escape to the neck or retroperitoneum causing obstructive shock or tension pneumothorax. Studies suggest that the cytokine storm in COVID-19 can result in diffuse alveolar injury, which can result in the alveolar wall being vulnerable to rupture. It is also speculated that the cause of the alveolar rupture is due to the diffuse alveolar damage resulting in air leak to the mediastinum. A recent case series of COVID19 autopsies have identified the microthrombi formation and the mononuclear response that leads to diffuse alveolar damage. In addition, recent studies have shown that COVID 19 infected patients are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increase intra and postoperative pulmonary complications and mortality risk. Meaning that patients with SPM had a higher chance of intubation and a higher chance of death. For anesthesiologists, the preoperative evaluation and risk assessment have always been a crucial step in determining whether it is safe to take a patient for surgery. Studies have shown that patients who test positive for COVID 19 are associated with worse clinical outcomes and increase postoperative complications and mortality. Obtaining accurate information, using clinical judgement and having open communication with surgeons may help reduce these risks.
Publisher or Conference
Journal of Anesthesiology and Pain Therapy
Nieves J, Elhakim TS, Ortiz VR, Silva G, Hernandez R, Gascon J. Air Leak in COVID-19 Patients. J Anesthesiol & Pain Therapy. 2021;2(3):3-7.