A Systematic Critical Appraisal of Clinical Practice Guidelines in Heart Failure Using the AGREE II Tool


West Florida


Citrus Memorial Hospital

Document Type


Publication Date



clinical practice guidelines, heart failure management


Cardiovascular Diseases | Internal Medicine


Multiple clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for heart failure management have been published to provide the best practices regarding the use of foundational therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, a critical appraisal of these heart failure guidelines has not been performed. This systematic review aimed to assess the methodological quality of current CPGs in the management of patients with heart failure. A comprehensive search of EMBASE and PubMed was conducted to identify CPGs published between January 1, 2021 and September 8, 2022. Any CPGs published in the last 2 years addressing the management of heart failure were eligible for inclusion. The methodological quality of the CPGs was assessed using the AGREE II (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluate II) instrument. The initial search yielded 3,269 citations, of which, 6 CPGs were included. A total of 2 CPGs were each published by the cardiology associations in North America and Asia and 1 each in Europe and South America. The overall median score for the AGREE II domains were 100% for scope and purpose, 71% for stakeholder involvement, 71% for the rigor of development, 100% for clarity of presentation, 43% for applicability, 100% for editorial independence, and 64% for overall assessment. CPG developers would benefit from the use of a standardized approach to the development of CPGs and use the contents of the AGREE II tool to improve the methodological rigor, reporting, and applicability of CPGs.

Publisher or Conference

American Journal of Cardiology