Acute Fulminant Cerebral Edema Caused by Influenza Type B in an 18-Year-Old Female: A Rare Case


East Florida


Northwest Medical Center

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Case Report

Publication Date



influenza b virus, acute fulminant cerebral edema, brain edema, encephalopathy


Internal Medicine | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nervous System Diseases | Virus Diseases


Most influenza B infections are self-limited, but in some instances, they can cause substantial morbidity and mortality due to complications. Acute fulminant cerebral edema (AFCE) is one of the rare complications. AFCE, a consequence of acute encephalitis, presents as acute onset of alteration in mental status, seizure, and/or headache followed by rapidly progressive encephalopathy, often leading to death. The exact pathophysiology of AFCE is unknown, but many pathomechanisms have been proposed. We present a case of an 18-year-old female in excellent physical condition who presented with respiratory insufficiency after being recently diagnosed with influenza B infection. Three days later, she developed acute encephalopathy, leading to brain death. To our knowledge, this rare case of AFCE developing following influenza B infection is the first reported case outside the pediatric population.

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