T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Crisis: Hyperleukocytosis, Tumor Lysis Syndrome, and Innovative Approaches.


East Florida


JFK Medical Center

Document Type

Case Report

Publication Date



continuous renal replacement therapy (crrt), critical care nephrology, hematology-oncology, leukapheresis, pulmonary critical care, t-cell leukemia


Hemic and Lymphatic Diseases | Internal Medicine | Medicine and Health Sciences | Neoplasms


T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a rare hematologic malignancy with a unique set of clinical challenges when it occurs in adults. This case report presents the complex management of a 32-year-old male with T-ALL who developed symptomatic hyperleukocytosis and tumor lysis syndrome. Upon presentation, the patient exhibited a constellation of critical clinical and laboratory findings, including leukocytosis, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperkalemia, high-anion gap metabolic acidosis, and acute kidney injury. Despite an initial diagnosis of an allergic reaction, the subsequent course of the disease necessitated rapid medical intervention and consultation with multiple specialties, including hematology-oncology and nephrology. The challenges encountered in managing this patient's condition, particularly in an intensive care unit setting, underscored the need for a tailored and multidisciplinary approach. Treatment modalities included leukapheresis, continuous renal replacement therapy, aggressive fluid resuscitation, and chemotherapy. The case highlights the intricate decision-making processes and adaptability required when addressing T-ALL with hyperleukocytosis and tumor lysis syndrome, particularly in cases where conventional chemotherapy is contraindicated. This report underscores the importance of ongoing research and the need for standardized treatment protocols for such complex clinical scenarios.

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