The Discrepancy Between Hemoglobin A1c and Glucose Management Indicators in 26 Patients Treated With Continuous Glucose Monitoring in an Internal Medicine Residency Clinic


Far West


MountainView Hospital

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continuous glucose monitoring (gmi), diabetes mellitus, glucose management indicator (gmi), hba1c, insulin


Endocrine System Diseases | Internal Medicine | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases


We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study between 2020 and 2023 in 26 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) who were using 3-4 injections per day of insulin and were monitored by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The goal of this retrospective observational cohort study is to compare these two metrics in an internal medicine community primary care residency clinic. We used CGM devices, Dexcom G6 and G7, and Freestyle Libre 3. The goal was to compare the patient's hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) taken during their clinic visit by phlebotomy as a marker for diabetic control with an estimated HbA1c glucose management indicator (GMI) derived from the 30-day CGM readings. HbA1c is derived from the blood, while the GMI value is derived from the interstitial fluid. Both parameters were taken within 30 days of each other. GMI was taken in the last 30 days. We excluded patients with known anemia, chronic kidney disease, polycythemia, cirrhosis of the liver, or metabolic dysfunction associated with steatohepatitis (MASH) because disease states can affect the measured HbA1c. Also, pregnant and African American patients were excluded. We concluded the measured HbA1c was 0.34% (4 mmol/mol) higher than the CGM-derived GMI. The relationship between factors that affect glycemic control was discussed in the article, as well as the future utilization of them in improving diabetic control and management. As the use of CGM continues to grow, addressing differences between laboratory-measured HbA1c and CGM-derived GMI is critical.

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