Eagle Syndrome: Pathophysiology, Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Options


North Florida


Osceola Regional Medical Center

Document Type

Review Article

Publication Date



eagle syndrome, elongated styloid process, stylocarotid artery syndrome, pain




The present investigation summarizes relevant symptoms, differential diagnosis, imaging, and treatment options of Eagle Syndrome. A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed literature was employed utilizing most relevant databases. The diagnoses of Eagle Syndrome have recently increased because of increased awareness of physicians of Eagle Syndrome and the earlier identification of the cardinal symptoms of the disease. The most important symptoms are dysphagia in the setting of cervical neck pain, but there is a wide variety of symptomatology that make Eagle Syndrome a challenge to recognize and diagnose clinically. CT scan continues to be the standard of care for diagnosing Eagle Syndrome and CT Angiography has an important role in aiding diagnosis as well. Medical treatment options include steroids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants however not all cases of Eagle Syndrome can be managed medically. Surgical approaches are varied but typically are either extraoral or transoral. This report aims to update providers on the important diagnostic criteria of Eagle Syndrome and how physicians can develop a treatment plan that addresses all the symptoms of patients with Eagle Syndrome because it can be treated safely and appropriately.

Publisher or Conference

Health Psychology Research