Title

A Case of Takayasu's Arteritis Presenting With Acute Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke Managed With Aortic-Common Carotid Artery (CCA) Bypass Surgery.

Division

West Florida

Hospital

Brandon Regional Hospital

Document Type

Case Report

Publication Date

11-2-2023

Keywords

immunosuppressive therapy, neurocritical care, neurology, syncope, takayasu's arteritis

Disciplines

Cardiovascular Diseases | Medicine and Health Sciences | Neurology | Psychiatry

Abstract

Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare inflammatory disorder that affects large arteries, particularly the aorta and its main branches. TA is also known as a pulseless disease because it diminishes blood flow to the limbs and organs. The patient was a 17-year-old female whose prior medical history included a diagnosis of TA. She had been experiencing multiple syncopal episodes up to three times daily, lasting 10 seconds each. She was being managed outpatient with immunologic therapy and warfarin. She initially presented to a children's hospital with abdominal pain and an asymmetrical smile and was found to have a ruptured ovarian cyst. This case demonstrated that life-threatening complications of TA can occur as a result of otherwise unrelated and common circumstances. The patient was managed medically and then proceeded to surgery. The case further highlights the multidisciplinary team approach between medical and surgical specialties and weighing the risks and benefits of complications for the patient's long-term care. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy are essential for better outcomes. Clinicians should be aware of the nonspecific symptoms of TA and consider it in the differential diagnosis of young patients presenting with systemic symptoms and arterial insufficiency. The initial presentation of middle cerebral artery stroke in young women has been documented in prior literature, but most published cases present the medical management of the disease. Our patient's case was unique because medical management was insufficient, with surgical management pursued due to persistent symptomatic hypotension. The inciting event of this case, an ovarian rupture with retroperitoneal hemorrhage, represents a unique burden to watershed infarctions in this patient group. Further research is needed to understand the pathogenesis of TA better and to develop more effective treatment strategies for this challenging disease.

Publisher or Conference

Cureus

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