Disseminated Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis: A Case Report


East Florida


Westside Regional Medical Center

Document Type

Case Report

Publication Date



Benign proliferation, Carcinomatosis, Case report, Differential diagnosis; Disseminated Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis; Histopathology diagnosis, Laparoscopic findings, Misdiagnosis risk


Medicine and Health Sciences | Neoplasms | Pathology


INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Disseminated Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis (DPL) is a rare benign proliferation of solid peritoneal lesions along the abdominopelvic cavity comprised of smooth muscle and connective tissue. Though hormonal and iatrogenic causes have been theorized, the exact etiology remains unknown. Most patients with DPL are frequently premenopausal with a history of myomectomy or prior hysterectomy. These patients can present asymptomatically or with abnormal uterine bleeding and abdominal discomfort. DPL is a rare entity with less than 150 cases reported in the literature, showcasing the need of awareness of this poorly understood neoplasm. Imaging, if performed, is helpful as positron emission tomography (PET) can differentiate DPL from malignant peritoneal disease. Treatment involves medical and surgical options based on patient's clinical presentation, with medical treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist being first line.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a previously healthy female presenting for desired laparoscopic tubal ligation with incidental countless peritoneal nodules suspicious for carcinomatosis found during the operative event but proven leiomyomas after histologic examination.

CLINICAL DISCUSSION: Differentiating DPL from mimickers such as leiomyosarcoma, endometriosis, and carcinomatosis remains a challenge as macroscopic appearances are similar ultimately requiring histology evaluation.

CONCLUSION: Awareness of the entity is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary anxiety associated with a presumptive diagnosis of malignancy for a largely benign entity.

Publisher or Conference

International Journal of Surgery Case Reports