Sneddon syndrome: under diagnosed disease, complex clinical manifestations and challenging diagnosis. A case-based review.


North Florida


Overland Park Regional Medical Center

Document Type

Review Article

Publication Date



Case report, Cerebrovascular disease, Literature review, Livedo racemosa, Sneddon Syndrome


Cardiovascular Diseases | Rheumatology | Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases


Herein, we report a case-based review of the Sneddon Syndrome (SS), a rare chronic condition which affects small to medium blood vessels. It is known by its skin presentation, livedo racemosa (LRC), and the relapsing cerebrovascular events. However, neither LRC nor cerebrovascular events are exclusive to SS. A 36-year-old female with history of mitral valve prolapse, hypothyroidism, Raynaud phenomenon, hypertension, migraines, and four episodes of transient ischemic attacks (TIA), presented to our clinic with new skin findings, suggestive of LRC. Based on her previous history, current presentation and skin biopsy results, she was diagnosed with SS secondary to antiphospholipid syndrome. The present report illustrates the difficulty in recognizing SS and how the heterogeneity of the disease may be contributing to the difficulty making a distinct diagnosis.

Publisher or Conference

Rheumatology International