Download Full Text (1.0 MB)

Download Abstract (71 KB)


East Florida


HCA Florida St. Lucie Hospital


Emergency Medicine

Document Type


Publication Date



internship and residency, wellbeing, burnout, resilience


Emergency Medicine | Medical Education | Medicine and Health Sciences


Intro: Wellness and burnout are two components of residency. Burnout is defined as a condition defined by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased feelings of accomplishments. Wellness is the accumulation of positive habits affecting mental, physical and emotional health. Burnout has been associated with “negative effects on quality of care, patient satisfaction and patient safety (1).”

The Objective: Objective of this review is to explore the connection between wellness and burnout, as well as future considerations, including research. While further research on burnout is an important avenue to pursue, tangible interventions may shed light on protective factors against the negative effects of burnout. A major barrier for research is measurable outcomes regarding burnout and wellness because there is a distinct lack of parameters that are used universally. This highlights the significance of creating tangible outcomes. Burnout and wellbeing are interconnected, creating interventions that target both aspects of residency training will help increase self-efficacy and create positive, lasting habits residents can utilize further into their careers.

The Methods: The review articles selected for further investigation, ranging from being published between 2015-2019, include Residency Wellness: An Intervention to Decrease Burnout and Increase Resilience and Happiness (1); Optimizing Resident Education and Wellness through the Learning Environment (2) and Evidence-Based Interventions that promote Resident wellness from the Council of Emergency Residency Directors (3). Article selection was based on inclusion of burnout and wellness as factors in residency, ways to explore how factors in the environment may affect these factors and evidence-based techniques to help safeguard individuals in residency who may be vulnerable. Review article 1 presents small measurable interventions that help residents recognize burnout, wellness and provides them with tools to help mitigate burnout. Review article 2 dissects the contributing factors that may negatively affect residents and make them prone to burnout, as well present tangible suggestions for each factor. Review article 3 focuses on Emergency Medicine residency specifically, and also provokes the question of how residency burnout and wellness can be defined across all medical specialities.

Discussion: In review article 1, residents selected for this intervention may be more open to including these interventions and may not necessarily be applicable to all residents. In review article 2, interventions, definitions and research related to burnout and wellness is to be done under the umbrella of ACGME, when training in each specialty is inherently different from one another, making universal measures difficult to achieve. In review article 3, focuses only on the speciality of Emergency Medicine, with research that includes other specialties. Each article cohesively addresses important factors, about defining burnout and wellness in residency, contributing factors and evidence-based interventions. Burnout and wellness is notoriously difficult to quantify, however, this should not halt research into interventions that can safeguard residents, as both topics are known to affect residency. Interventions should be conducted at an individual, program and institutional level, possibly by speciality and through experienced physicians who specialize in these topics or by specialized psychologists with training in understanding burnout and wellness in the medical field. Another aspect to be implemented is through resident feedback, with actionable measures, perhaps by each year, to be implemented the following year.

Residency Burnout and Wellness



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.