gastrointestinal microbiome; gastrointestinal tract/microbiology; probiotics; immune system phenomena/immunology; host-pathogen interactions; bacterial infections; metagenome; probiotics/therapeutic use; diet; dysbiosis; inflammatory bowel diseases


Biochemical Phenomena, Metabolism, and Nutrition | Digestive, Oral, and Skin Physiology | Digestive System Diseases | Immune System Diseases | Medical Nutrition | Medicine and Health Sciences | Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases | Public Health | Public Health Education and Promotion


Over the millennia, the human body and microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and parasites have coevolved together forming an intimate relationship. These microorganisms are found on the skin, in the mouth, genitourinary tract and most abundantly in the large intestine of the digestive tract. States of microbial dysbiosis contribute to chronic inflammation, which can lead to the pathogenesis and progression of numerous diseases. Micro- and macro-nutrients as well as dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet can help improve health outcomes.