BCI adoption rates; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); attention; brain-computer interfaces (BCIs); BCI accuracy; BCI literacy; BCI performance; depression; distraction; electroencephalography (EEG); event-related desynchronization (ERD); information transfer rate (ITR); internal variables; mental state; motor imagery; mood; motivation; neuroprosthetics; quality of life (QoL); psychological variables; sensorimotor rhythm (SMR); signal classification accuracy


Bioelectrical and Neuroengineering | Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering | Medical Biotechnology | Neurology | Neurosciences


In this review article, we aimed to create a summary of the effects of internal variables on the performance of sensorimotor rhythm-based brain computer interfaces (SMR-BCIs). SMR-BCIs can be potentially used for interfacing between the brain and devices, bypassing usual central nervous system output, such as muscle activity. The careful consideration of internal factors, affecting SMR-BCI performance, can maximize BCI application in both healthy and disabled people. Internal variables may be generalized as descriptors of the processes mainly dependent on the BCI user and/or originating within the user. The current review aimed to critically evaluate and summarize the currently accumulated body of knowledge regarding the effect of internal variables on SMR-BCI performance. The examples of such internal variables include motor imagery, hand coordination, attention, motivation, quality of life, mood and neurophysiological signals other than SMR. We will conclude our review with the discussion about the future developments regarding the research on the effects of internal variables on SMR-BCI performance. The end-goal of this review paper is to provide current BCI users and researchers with the reference guide that can help them optimize the SMR-BCI performance by accounting for possible influences of various internal factors.