microaggression; medicine/statistics and numerical data; minority groups; medical students; physicians; cultural diversity; social discrimination


Interprofessional Education | Medical Humanities


Microaggressions are pervasive throughout society, including in healthcare and academic institutions. They are often unconscious but accumulate over time, and they negatively impact the recipients' productivity and achievement by creating a sense of inadequacy as well as a lack of belonging. We outline several evidence-based strategies and teaching frameworks that institutions and training programs can adopt to reduce the prevalence and impact of microaggressions against trainees from historically marginalized groups, and that can promote psychological safety for everyone.