low-molecular-weight heparin; enoxaparin monitoring; anti-factor Xa monitoring; factor Xa inhibitors; anticoagulants; direct acting oral anticoagulant


Cardiology | Hematology | Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry | Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutics | Other Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment | Pharmacology


Monitoring anti-factor Xa levels is a controversial topic in the inpatient setting due to resource utilization and unclear conditional guideline recommendations regarding this practice. Enoxaparin dosing in certain high-risk patient populations such as those with low body weight, obesity, renal insufficiency, and pregnancy has not been determined. The objective of this review was to assess the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin monitoring via anti-factor Xa levels in high-risk patient populations.

The PubMed database was searched for articles related to low-molecular-weight heparin monitoring. Randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses that evaluated the safety and efficacy of enoxaparin prophylaxis and treatment in patients with extremes of weight, renal insufficiency, and pregnancy were selected. Fourteen studies representing four high-risk population patient groups were included. Patients with extremes of weight or who were pregnant were found to have subtherapeutic anti-factor Xa levels due to the weight-based dosing of enoxaparin. Those with renal insufficiency were found to be accumulating enoxaparin, indicating the need for a lower dose. Studies have shown that monitoring may be required in specific high-risk patient groups. Dose adjustments based on anti-factor Xa levels can prevent adverse events associated with enoxaparin. Further research involving larger patient populations would be necessary to determine the clinical efficacy of enoxaparin monitoring with anti-factor Xa levels.