pharmacy technology; clinical surveillance technology; drug therapy modifications; prescribing practices; pharmacy practice model; pharmacy metrics; pharmacy outcomes measurement; hospital pharmacy departments; pharmacist interventions


Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences



Outcomes-directed pharmacy models are necessary to further comprehensive, patient-centric clinical care. This report describes the implementation of clinical surveillance technology and the development of clinical pharmacy metrics to measure outcomes that support return on investment. The overall goal of clinical surveillance technology implementation in this quality improvement project was to extend the pharmacists’ reach and to improve patient safety and clinical outcomes with greater operational efficiencies.


In 2013, a clinical pharmacy surveillance tool was piloted and expanded over the next 2 years to 154 hospitals across the health system. Over the next 6 years, the number of hospitals utilizing the technology, the number of drug therapy modifications, the time to pharmacist intervention, clinical pharmacy metric results, and return on investment were tracked.


From 2015 to 2021, the number of hospitals with clinical surveillance technology implemented grew to 177 hospitals. During this same time, the number of frontline clinical pharmacist drug therapy modifications more than doubled, and the time for pharmacists to respond to alerts decreased from 13.9 to 2.6 hours. Since 2015, the percentage of patients on vancomycin de-escalated by 3 days of therapy has increased by 12% and the percentage of patients with a UTI treated with fluoroquinolone decreased by 25%. Hard and soft dollar savings resulted in an annual return on investment of 1:12.9.


After implementing the redesigned pharmacy services model, pharmacists were more efficient and patient outcomes improved.